How to educate a preschooler at home: Teaching a child of preschool age can be done at home, using simple activities.

You don’t have to dedicate much time studying the syllabus. Children of this age tend to have little attention capacity and learn more through games and pragmatic activities. Arrange to devote a little time every day for learning, for physical exercises, and also for activities related to music and art. The most important thing is to diminish the time spent in front of the TV or the computer.

Read to your children on a daily basis or teaching new adjectives, like adjectives that start with a. Go through the books several times, this will help the child to start memorizing the stories and, step by step, he will make progress in the recognition of words, and consequently, in reading. Choose simple books which use and repeat short words that the child can quickly learn how to read. Then read bigger, more complex books, to teach the child to focus on longer stories.

Each day, pick a letter from the alphabet on which to focus, for your child to practice his observational skills. Select the aliments, books and activities that start with the chosen letter, so that your child will see and hear that sound for the entire day. Watch how many things –starting with this letter– he can find or think of.

Choose a number a day, that your child must learn. Start by counting up to that number, and jot down the symbol and the word for that number. For breakfast, count as many pieces of cereal as the chosen number requests, propose him to run around the yard that many times, or take a walk and pick that number of flowers or leaves.

Make these exercises part of his normal daily activities. Teach your child the colors when you’re sorting clothes for washing, teach him mathematics (units of measurement) while you are cooking, money and nutrition when doing shopping at the grocery store. You have to involve him in everything you do, because kindergarten children love to do activities specific for the adults, like cooking or shopping.

Ask him questions. While you are taking a walk with your child, ask him what he thinks about the animals he sees, where they live and what they eat. Ask about the weather and the seasons of the year, and what things are necessary for different periods throughout a year. Talk to him about the holidays in every season, so he will learn what to expect at different times of the year.

Do practical lessons with your child. Make experiments by putting ice cubes in a bowl, and explain how the melting time depends on the temperature. Pick a cube of ice with a piece of string, by pouring salt on it. Let him mix watercolors by himself, and see how many nuances he can create; this way, he learns about how colors work. Mix a drop of vinegar with food coloring, then try to blend it with oil in a white or transparent container. First, ask him questions about the results he thinks you would obtain. Then perform the experiment and explain to him what really happened: this is the process of scientific experiments.

Try out different art projects, like pages that can be colored, or handicrafts that your child can create. Talk about the colors, shapes and lines. Offer him a variety of materials, including construction paper, finger paint, watercolors and clay. Show him pieces of art wherever you go.

Make music a part of his daily life, as much as possible, by combining it with other activities. Play CDs as often as you can, and exercise singing and dancing on the songs. Choose different types of music and ask your child how each one of them makes him feel. Get the children instruments like drums, xylophones, keyboards, bells or a tape recorder that they can play with whenever they want.

The difficult task of learning to read and write

Reading is one of the most important tools for adapting to the social and educational contexts. A failure in learning this will quickly generate a series of negative effects on the child, like a negative attitude, grade repetition, dropout and, ultimately, the association of learning with anguish and a feeling of incompetency with regard to a task.

Speaking is made of sounds; these sounds are called phonemes, and are classified in consonants, vowels, consonant clusters and diphthongs.

Learning to read and write requests that one have the cognitive resources that will help them associate in their mind the sound, or phoneme, with the corresponding graphic or visual symbol, called grapheme. This implies that the person can recognize the letters and groups of letters, so that they can understand what that word means.

However, this process that seems so trivial and that is carried out almost automatically, is the cause of much grief and difficulties for some children.

There is a group of difficulties in the development of language that are not sufficiently explained by impaired auditory perception or a faulty phono-articulatory apparatus, nor by intellectual retardation or other psycho-patological disorders and socio-emotional deprivation. These disorders are grouped under the name “specific developmental language disorder” (SDLD) and are subject to different clinical procedures, depending on the level to which the phonological, syntactical and lexical capacities are affected, with regard to comprehension and expression. These can, in turn, be associated with communication disorders (autism) or with a background of learning disorders, like dyslexia or dysorthographia.

The dyslexic-dysorthographic child is biologically different, because he has a special genetic component that formed his perception of the world before any formal learning did. According to recent studies, the origin of this is in the brain, so he is different from birth; therefore, when the time comes to teach him how to read, he has already interacted with his environment differently than the others. From the first words, his mother tongue has been perceived by his brain in a different way. From the first contacts with his visual environment, the image that he makes in his mind about the surrounding world and his perceptions about time and space are different, too.

The development of neuropsychology allowed us to discover that the brain of a child, as well as that of an adult, is organised in a modular way; that is to say, it consists of interconnected networks, each one commanding a different part of the intellectual process. The well-functioning of each of these networks can be damaged in at least two ways: either by suffering a lesion, an injury close to a cerebral area (like, for instance, a serious head trauma), or due to the fact that the respective area has developed incorrectly from the first moments of life in-womb, or from birth.

In both cases, the consequences are usually the same. When the damaged networks need to be used for an intricate activity like reading, the person faces specific reading difficulties, thus matching the general term of dyslexia. When dyslexia appears at an adult who has previously learnt how to read properly, it is called acquired dyslexia (or alexia). But when the condition is present before reaching the age appropriate for learning how to read, then it is the learning that will be perturbed, so then we talk about developmental dyslexia.

 

What happens in the brain of a dyslexic child?

The human brain consists in two hemispheres – right and left – that communicate with each other through a structure that acts as a bridge between them, called corpus callosum (the colossal commissure).

Each hemisphere specializes in several functions. The left hemisphere controls the language processes, while the right one handles processes concerning visual and spatial information.

The two cerebral hemispheres function differently; the left one processes the information sequentially, some data after the other, while the other one does this simultaneously – that is, a great amount of data at the same time.

In reading, the two types of strategies are combined in order to manage the information. However, when it comes to dyslexic children, the dysfunction or failure of the left hemisphere affects the information processing speed, which makes it difficult for the child to be able to process rapid changes of succesive stimuli, both in the auditive and in the visual area.

A report written by Kaufman and Galaburda in 1989 thoroughly display the evidence of anatomical and functional abnormalities in dyslexia. There, the authors prove that in the brain of the dyslexic, there are specific abnormalities of the cerebral cortex, as well as different asymmetries in the parietal, temporal and frontal lobes, and an abnormal metabolism in the right cerebellum. (Figure 12)

Since dyslexia is primarily a learning problem, the characteristic personality will stand out in the classroom either by shyness and seclusion, or by a disruptive behaviour, talking, fighting, not working, as ways to achieve the acknowledgement that he or she cannot obtain through his school performance.

 

Ten steps for teaching your child to read

  1. Read to your child:

You have to start reading stories to your child from the time he/she is a newborn: it will become a moment of special bonding for both of you, and it will develop his/her love for books. If children don’t appreciate reading from an early age, their capacity for this activity will be lower in the future.

Everybody can decide what to read to their children, but we recommend reading them three or four books a day when they are small. After they grow up, I advise reading for about twenty minutes a day.

  1. Ask them questions:

Asking questions to children (when they are two or three years old) while reading them a book, stimulates them and is very helpful in the development of their comprehension. Actually, there are many children who can read very fluidly but don’t understand what they are reading; and if they don’t, their reading is neither genuine, nor productive. The questions during reading should enrich their vocabulary and make the children interact with the book.

  1. Offer a good example by reading yourself:

Even though your child may be fascinated by books from a very early age, his/her enthusiasm will decrease when realizing that nobody else reads in the house. If you don’t read regularly, you have to make an effort and read more often so that your son or daughter see that reading is something really important. Children need to see that their parents do read, otherwise they won’t pick up a book.

  1. Teach them to identify the letters in natural ways:

By this, we refer, for instance, to wooden letters that are often hung on the walls of the children’s rooms. Many mothers and fathers explain that due to those letters, their child has learnt to spell his name, or his sibling’s. Using this visual and attentional memory, they can learn many other things, like reading time on the clock (which is much easier to do if there is a clock on the wall, for him/her to watch every day), or the numbers.

The fact that the child is learning the alphabet is very important, but we consider that the learning method that he/she uses to achieve this knowledge is even more important.

  1. Combine different areas of development:

Children manage to learn better when they have many reasons to make an effort in this direction. This is why learning through practice and not so much through theory results in better and prolonged retentiveness. Once the child is familiarized with the alphabet, we must keep in mind that learning is less important than phonetics, that is, the way he/she sounds. We consider that it is necessary for the child to be involved in activities and games that exercise his/her gross motor skills. Other things that children enjoy as well are poems, songs and rhymes. We recommend that parents make a list of all the activities or games that their child likes most, in order to perform activities that suit them.

  1. Organize books according to genre:

When the child is around 5 years old and can make the difference between reality and fiction, we can help him/her discern between different book types: reality-based stories, fantasy, science-fiction, music books, poetry books. When a child classifies a book to a certain literary category, he will start to remember its details, will make an effort to categorize it, and will have to remember other books that he had read, pertaining to the same genre. After having read the book, this won’t take the child more than ten seconds.

  1. Word families:

Word families are composed of words that rhyme. Teaching children rhyming words is a phonological activity that helps them discern between different word patterns, which we consider is very important. Apart from learning about rhyming words, the children will also learn about language itself.

  1. Phonic awareness:

Phonetics involve the skill of spelling the sound of each letter, as well as learning the rules of the language, and it is an important component of literacy (although it should never become the main point of interest). Learning phonetic rules has to be a tool through which the child learns to decipher and spell words, on his/her way to reading.

  1. Decoding:

When we talk about decoding, we generally refer to “the uttered sound”. It is an important element in teaching children to read, although not the most important. Once the child knows all the sounds of every letter in the alphabet, he/she has to learn to put words together (from the shortest to the longest ones). This activity can sometimes be difficult, but it is important to teach them in a creative way, so that they will find the activity more enjoyable and less strenuous.

  1. Frequent words:

The most frequently-used words in our language must be memorized by the child, so that he/she will become a good reader. Experts say that it benefits the child to make a list of such popular words for him/her to memorize.

 

Latest Information Regarding APA Citation Format on the Title Page

The entire general information about APA format will be in accordance to the latest revised 6th edition of the APA manual as prescribed by the American Psychological Association. It will feature all the important aspects that would be needed when writing a research paper. You will be provided with the overall format that a research paper should look like when utilizing APA format, as well as, guidelines in formatting a reference page, an APA title page, in-text citations, and footnotes/endnotes. Naturally, when you want to have an in-depth know-how on the APA writing style, you should check out the 6th edition, second printing of APA’s Publication Manual.

General Instructions

The paper should be typed in a standard paper size which has an 11’ by 8.5’ measurement. It should have a 1’ margin on all sides. Also, it is important to utilize a font style that can be easily read. APA’s ideal font requirement is Times New Roman font style and 12 font size. In addition, your paper should have a Running Head, which should be included on top of each page. Running head or page header consists of the page number together with the paper’s title. The title should be written in capital letters. However, the running head should not go over 50 characters which include punctuations and spaces used. There are four major sections that comprise an essay paper namely: Title Page, Abstract/Summary, Main Body, and the Reference Page.

APA Title Page

An APA title page should present the following elements: the paper’s title, the name of the writer/author, and the institution where the author is affiliated. Also, the running head should be included in the APA title page as mentioned above. The header should be found in the left side of the paper while the page number is on the right part on the page’s topmost side.

When making your running head, there is a small difference between the header in the title page and the succeeding headers on every page of the paper. The running head for the APA title page should look in this manner:

 

Running head: PAPER’S TITLE

As to the running head of all the succeeding pages, they should look in this manner:

 

PAPER’S TITLE

 

You will notice that the term “Running head” is removed. This is the correct way to do this and this aspect is among the corrected parts of the latest 6th edition, 2nd printing APA Manual.

After taking care of the running head, you can now concentrate of the three elements of an APA title page.

 

Use both upper and lower cases when writing the title of the paper. The APA manual suggests that you do not use over 12 words as the title. There should no abbreviations and useless words. You can use one to two lines in writing the title and double-spaced.

Next, enter the writer’s name. It should be typed with the following arrangement: first name, middle initial/s, and the surname. Do not include title like Ph.D. or Dr. With regards to APA title page with multiple authors; arrange them alphabetically using the surname. Lastly, enter the institution’s or school’s name. This would reveal where the research has taken place

The APA Format Citation General Guidelines

There are several available writing formats that are being utilized by researchers, students, and writers today and APA writing style is among them. APA format of writing is mostly used in studies like education, psychology, and social studies. This kind of writing format was introduced by a group called American Psychological Association in 1929 in order to provide helpful parameters and standards that will be used when arranging and organizing a paper. These guidelines will ensure that all works in this writing format will be readable, correct, and consistent with each other. Although the whole APA directions and recommendations are extremely broad, here are some of the most general and common rules that you need to know in order to make use of APA format.

  • Margin – All sides will have one inch in measurement.
  • Spacing – The whole document or research paper will use double-spacing.
  • Font – It is especially suggested that Times New Roman should be the font style used and 10 or 12 as the font size.
  • Title Page – This page should contain the research paper’s title, the running head, your complete name, and the institution where you are associated with. After the heading, the first line will have the paper’s title, the second will have the writer’s name, and then lastly, the institution or school. All these information should be centered both horizontally and vertically.
  • Header – The header should contain the following: “Running Head:” which will then be followed by the title of the paper and written in full capital letter. Also, ensure that every page of the paper will contain a header presenting the paper’s title as well as the number of the page.
  • Abstract – This is the part of the document that will follow the title page. It primarily consists of what the paper will present. For instance, you will find the methodologies used, the findings form researches made, and the conclusions. The recommended length of this summary is about 150 to 250 words.
  • Body’s Alignment and Spacing – In every paragraph, the first line should be indented always. After every period, there should be two spaces before the next sentence.
  • In-Text Citations – In-text APA citation texts should always be used in order to authenticate the sources and of course, to avoid any plagiarism issues. Using the proper APA format citation, the citations or references should be enclosed in parenthesis together with the date of publication and the last name of the author.

o   Example: (Lieber, 2003)

  • Reference Page – This page will be titled “References” and will follow APA format citation as recommended. It will contain more in-depth information about all sources. As indicated in APA format citation rules, the list of references should be arranged alphabetically. If the information cannot be contained within one line, according to APA format citation, the second line should be indented using the TAB key. Also, APA format citation regulations indicated that quoted references should be both included in the Reference page and the in-text citations. In order to have a proper understanding of how APA format citation should be done, make sure to check out samples and tutorial online.

Creating a Bibliography Page

Every book or writing material has its own bibliography page. What is a bibliography? It is the systematic list of books, articles and other sources that a researcher or a student uses in his or her research paper. In the bibliography format, this page appears at the end of the manuscript. In the creation of a bibliography, there is also a need to create citations which involves formatting notes that would give acknowledgement to the researcher’s references.

Bibliography formats available

There are two commonly used bibliography format and they are the APA and MLA formats. These two formats usually include the following details: author’s name, book or article titles, publishers, publishing date and place, styles or type, book size and others. There is a need for a bibliography for it assists readers in finding the original sources of your references. You also need to remember that in the Chicago format and in any other formats, the bibliographies are alphabetically arranged.

 

Annotations

Furthermore, a bibliography is composed of annotations. Annotations are lists of concise notes that direct the research paper or give comments regarding the usefulness of an appended work. Now, it is very important that bibliographies are formatted properly. Scholars, literary writers and professional researchers need to consider the bibliography part as crucial to the paper for they are useful sources for many readers especially the serious ones.

 

Types of Bibliography

There are many bibliography examples available from various sources for everyone to check out. In fact, it is best to check the two types of bibliography. One is the analytic bibliographies and the other is the critical bibliography. Analytic bibliography is concerned with resources as material objects. This means that physical features such as the type of paper, printing features and more in order to establish that the sources are reliable and with a establish authorship. On the other hand, descriptive bibliography format pertains to the organized listing of sources, references and publications. This bibliography format is what APA and MLA formats use. It even has 4 categories: universal and general, bibliography and selective bibliography.

 

Listing according to subjects

In addition, bibliographies can also be listed according to several subjects, different countries of publication and different date of publication. There are times wherein researchers or students are instructed to limit their bibliographies based on any of the following: subject, country of origin, works of one author or on books for particular purpose or audience.

 

Listing according to type of source

It is a great strategy to list down each book, article and other sources that you utilize when doing a research for this will make the creation of bibliographies easier may it be under the APA or the MLA bibliography formats. What to take down? List the full title of your reference, author’s name, place and date of publication and the publisher.

 

Listing alphabetically

All in all, it is best to arrange your entries in alphabetical order when formatting your bibliography or works cited page. If you encounter materials without an author, you can list them on your bibliography based on the title. You can also utilize a citation maker to help you in formatting your sources.

How to create a Bibliography

If you are required to alphabetically list all the sources you used in writing a paper, essay, article or research paper, then use the APA bibliography format. This is because some instructors would require students to pass an APA bibliography together with the paper. In case, you are not required to submit a bibliography, it is still best to create one for it can assist you in keeping track of all your references.

Basically, a bibliography such as the APA bibliography is somewhat same with a reference section of a paper. However, there are few differences between them. For instance, the reference section presents all the sources that were actually used in the paper while the bibliography page may add some sources that you have though of using but did not due to them being unrelated or obsolete.

So, if you are planning to create a bibliography using the APA format, you can follow the guidelines below:

The Bibliography should be started on a Fresh Page. Remember to separate your APA bibliography from the rest of your manuscript. Start it on a new page with the title “References” placed at the center.

Collect all the sources or references that you have utilized. Every source that you can possibly use in writing your paper should be gathered and compiled. Well, there might be some of them which may appear to be irrelevant while you are writing your paper but, at least in the end, it will be easy for you to make your reference section.

Each source used should have an APA Reference or citation. When using an APA bibliography format, you have to list the author’s last name in an alphabetical order and in double-spaced format. In addition, the first line of each source should be flushed on the left side while the second or third lines should be placed few spaces to the right of the left margin. This is known as hanging indent.

Each source should have an annotation. In the usual manner, a bibliography will just present the details of the references used by the writer. However, there are times when a writer decides to create an annotated bibliography. What is an annotation? Basically, it is a summary or an evaluation of a source.

So, while reading through each of your references, have some time to prepare a short annotation for each source. This annotation can be written in about 150 words and with the following contents: description of the source contents, your evaluation about the source credibility and describe how it is related to your subject matter. This will not only help you in determining which source is important but, it can also be an assessment guide for your instructor.

Finally, if you want to make your research or writing process easier, you should create an APA bibliography with the use of an APA bibliography maker. You will surely be having a hard time figuring out which details to include in your paper without an APA bibliography.

This is how an APA formatted Bibliography would look like:

References

21st century hunting rifle: the ambush 6.8 SPC redefines the “modern sporting rifle” concept. (2012, July 1).Guns Magazine5, 12-15

Austen, J., & Johnson, R. B. (1904).The novels of Jane Austen (Hampshire ed.). New York: George E. Croscup & Co..

Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.

 

 

 

MLA Format Works Cited

If you are a student and have been tasked by your instructor to write a paper on the subject of literature, philosophy, or any of the fine arts, you will be required to use the MLA format to structure your paper and the MLA citation style to document your sources. These two styles were established and developed by the Modern Language Association, an organization that specializes in the study of literature and languages, and have been adopted by many educational institutions, including several high schools departments, colleges, and universities.

The purpose of MLA citations and a work cited page is to acknowledge the original source for each citation that you use in writing your work, and to give your paper credibility to avoid accusations of plagiarism. The complete and definitive rules, style conventions, and guidelines of the MLA format are fully explained in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, and it covers several aspects of research writing, including topic selection, evaluating sources, taking notes, plagiarism, mechanics of writing, and the format of the research paper as well as the technicalities of citation for every source type.

You can start preparing your MLA format works cited page by creating a new, separate page in your word processor. As with the rest of your document, you need to set 1 inch margins on all sides (left, right, top, and bottom) of the page, and to set the line spacing into double space. Remember to include your last name and the pertinent page numbers on the running head on all pages.

All titles of books, magazines, scholarly journals, newspapers, and websites are always underlined. On the other hand, all titles of individual articles, such as titles of articles taken from periodicals, essay collections, magazines, and anthologies are always enclosed within double quotation marks. Below are some examples:

Hawthorn, Jeremy. Conrad: Language and Fictional Self-Consciousness. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

Klein, Melanie. “Mourning and Its Relation to Manic-Depressive States.” In Love, Guilt, and Reparation and Other Works, 1921-1945. New York: Dell, 1975.

When a particular source has no given author, skip it and start your MLA citation with the title instead, for example:

Thorns and Arabesques: Contexts for Conrad’s Fiction. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1980.

For the publishers, always use a shortened version, for example, instead of typing “New York: William Morrow & Company”, you can shorten it to “New York: Morrow.” In instances where the publisher has an imprint, i.e., Avon Book, published by Harper Collins, incorporate the two elements, resulting in: Avon-Harper.

The types of sources that are available for use in writing research papers are innumerable and vary in their elements, and each require a particular and appropriate MLA citation. Thus, should you require further assistance in formatting them, you can choose to use a works cited generator, which is designed to automatically structure and generate your sources in the accurate and proper MLA format.

APA Website Citation: Citation Example

An APA website citation is particularly used for sources that you have accessed and taken online, such as websites, web pages, and even online databases, online encyclopedias, and other internet archives. For these works that you have retrieved online, two additional pieces of information should be included in your citation entry. One is the internet address, commonly called as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which identifies the location of the file on the internet, consisting of the protocol, the computer on which the file is located, and the file’s location on the computer.

A stable and working internet address or URL of the work from which you took your source should be included in your APA website citation entry, and, when clicked or visited, should direct the reader to the web page where the actual work is located. If the particular work has a digital object identifier, or DOI, the APA style recommends you to use this instead. If there is no DOI or similar handle, the URL should suffice. If the specific URL is liable to change, as in some cases, especially with online versions of newspapers and some subscription-based databases, you need to use the main internet address of home page of the site you retrieved the work from.

Additionally, the APA website citation should also contain the date in which you accessed and retrieved the work or information online. Sometimes, if the particular work that you intend to cite is a finalized version and published online on a specific date, as in the case of most journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, you need to include it within the main body of the citation entry. On the other hand, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, you only need to include the date when you retrieved the information.

Below are some citation examples:

Last, M. Love Poems for Her. In Love Poems for Her. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from http://lovepoemsforher.net

For an online source that has no author:

Albert Camus. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Camus

New Child Vaccine Gets Funding Boost. In Medical Headlines: Health News. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/story_13178.asp

For an APA website citation of multiple authors:

Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, Followership, and Evolution: Some Lessons from the Past. In American Psychologist. Retrieved July 8, 2012, from doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182

 

APA In-text Citation with Multiple Authors

In the world of scholarly writing and publishing, and in the several social science professions and other health-related fields, citations are brief notes that acknowledge and point to the original sources of ideas, information, summaries, paraphrases, and all the quoted passages that you have used in writing your essay or research paper. A complete APA citation format usually includes the author’s last name and his initials, the title of the work being cited, the name of the publisher, the year of publication, and other relevant information to help readers locate the original source.

APA in-text citations, on the other hand, pertain to the references that appear within the body of your paper. As a general rule, when you first mention a source, usually after a direct quote or in the form of a paraphrase, you are required to cite it as part of the text. The citation, including the year of publication, is enclosed in parentheses. For example:

… “All art appeals primarily to the senses, to the plasticity of sculpture, to the color of painting, and to the magic suggestiveness of music. My task which I am trying to achieve is, by the power of the written word, to make you hear, to make you feel – it is, above all, to make you see.” (Conrad, 1921). …

The APA in-text citation can also be written as a paraphrase and thus included in a sentence, with the year of publication enclosed in parentheses, as in the following example:

… According to Joseph Conrad (1921), all art appeals to the senses, primarily to the plasticity of sculpture, to the color of painting, and to the magic suggestiveness of music. He believes that his task as an artist is, by the power of the written word, to make his readers hear, to make them feel, and, above all, to make them see. …

 

Accordingly, for every in-text citation that appears in the main body of your text, there should be a corresponding citation entry in your list of references. The general APA citation format for a source with multiple authors is as follows:

First Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., Second Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Third Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of Specific Work. City: Publisher.

Below are some examples of APA in-text citation multiples authors that demonstrate the APA citation format and their corresponding APA in-text citation:

Sebranek, P., Meyer, V., & Kemper, D. (2004). Write for College. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group.

In text: (Sebranek, Meyer, & Kemper, 2004).

Bain, C. E., Beatty, J., & Hunter, P. J. (1986). The Norton Introduction to Literature (4th ed.). New York: Norton.

In-text: (Bain, Beatty, & Hunter, 1986).